The Top & Tail Project ended in November 2015. The final impacts can be found on the Project Outcomes page.



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Title Authors Year Type/ Copyright
1.2.2 Assessment of Disturbance Propagation between AC Grids through VSC HVDC Links using Reduced Great Britain Model C. Spallarossa, Y. Pipelzadeh, B. Choudhuri, T. Green 2012 Conference
1.2.2 Reduced Dynamic Model of a Modular Multilevel Converter in PowerFactory C. Spallarossa, M. Merlin, Y. Pipelzadeh, T. Green 2015 Conference
1.2.2 Augmented Inertial Response of Multi-level Converters using Internal Energy Storage C. Spallarossa, M. Merlin, T. Green 2015 Conference
2.1.1 Future Energy Demand in the Domestic Sector N. Kelly, M. Thomson 2012 Report
2.1.1 Primary Frequency Response from Electric Vehicles in the Great Britain Power System Yunfei Mu, Jianzhong Wu, Janaka Ekanayake, Nick Jenkins, Hongjie Jia 2012 Journal
2.1.1 Method for simultaneous power flow analysis in coupled multi energy networks M. Abeysekera, J. Wu 2015 Conference
2.1.1 Steady state analysis of gas networks with distributed injection of alternative gas, International Journal of Applied Energy M. Abeysekera, J. Wu, N. Jenkins, M. Rees 2015 Journal
1.3.1 Gas Insulated Transmission Line Using CF3I – CO2 Gas Mixture T. Chen 2013 Poster
1.3.3 Partial Power Operation of Multi-level Modular Converters under Subsystem Faults P. Clemow, T. Green, M. Merlin 2013 Conference
1.3.3 Operation of HVDC modular multilevel converters under DC pole imbalances A. Junyent-Ferre, P. Clemow, M.M.C Merlin, T.C. Green 2014 Conference
2.2.1 A high density converter for mid-feeder voltage regulation of low voltage distribution networks R.W Silversides, T.C. Green, M.M.C Merlin 2014 Conference
1.2.2 Influence of Frequency-Droop Supplementary Control on Disturbance Propagation through VSC HVDC Links C. Spallarossa, Y. Pipelzadeh, T. Green 2013 Conference
1.1.1 Transmission Infrastructure Investment Requirements in the Future European Low-Carbon Electricity System D. Pudjianto, M. Castro, G. Strbac, E. Gaxiola 2013 Conference
1.1.1 Asymetric impacts of European transmission network development towards 2050: stakeholder assessment based on IRENE-40 scenarios D. Pudjianto, M. Castro, G. Strbac, Z. Liu, L. van der Sluis, G. PaperfthymiouImperial, E. Gaxiola 2013 Journal
1.1.1 The North Sea Grid O. D. Adeuyi and Jianzhong Wu 2015 Journal
1.1.1 Preventing DC Over-voltage in Multi-terminal HVDC Transmission O. D, Adeuyi, M. Cheah-Mane, J. Liang, L. Livermore, Q. Mu 2015 Journal
1.1.1 Frequency Support from Modular Multilevel Converter Based Multi-Terminal HVDC Schemes O. D. Adeuyi, M. Cheah-Mane, J. Liang, N. Jenkins, Y. Wu, C. Li, X. Wu 2015 Conference
1.1 A novel full soft-switching resonant power converter for mid-feeder voltage regulation of low voltage distribution network C. Ji, A.J. Watson, J.C. Clare, C.M. Johnson 2016 Conference
1.1.1 The Shape of Future Electricity Demand: Exploring Load Curves in 2050s Germany and Britain T. Bossman, I. Staffell 2015 Journal
1.1.1 Market Design for Long-Distance Trade in Renewable Electricity R.Green, D.Pudjianto, I.Staffel, G.Strbac 2015 Journal
1.1.1 How large should a portfolio of wind farms be? R.Green, I.Staffel 2015 Journal
1.2.2 Transient Fault Studies in a Multi-Terminal VSCHVDC Grid Utilizing Protection Means Through DC Circuit Breakers M. Hadjikypris, V. Terzija 2013 Conference
2.2.3 DC utilization of existing LVAC distribution cables D. Antoniou, A. Tzimas, S. Rowland 2013 Conference
2.2.3 Electric Fields in LVDC cables D. Antoniou, A. Tzimas, S. Rowland 2013 Conference
2.2.3 Transition from alternating current to direct current low voltage distribution networks D. Antoniou, A. Tzimas, S. Rowland 2014 Journal
1.3.1 Low voltage DC cable insulation challenges and opportunities A. Tzimas, D. Antoniou, S. Rowland 2013 Conference
1.3.1 The impact of interface and space charge formation on breakdown strength of epoxy resin samples I. Iddrissu, S.M. Rowland, A. Tzimas 2014 Conference
1.3.1 Comparison and Combination of Imaging Techniques for Three Dimensional Analysis of Electrical Trees R. Schurch, S. M. Rowland, R. S. Bradley, P. J. Withers 2015 Journal
1.3.1 A simple theoretical model for the bulk properties of nanocomposite materials M. Praeger, T. Andritsch, S. G. Swingler, A. S. Vaughan 2014 Conference
1.3.1 Dielectric Studies of Polystyrene-based, High Permittivity Composite Systems J. Topham, O. Boorman, I.L. Hosier, M. Praeger, R. Torah, A.S. Vaughan, T. Andritsch, S.G Swingler 2014 Conference
1.3.1 Effect of water absorption on dielectric properties of nano-silica/polyethylene composites I. L. Hosier, M. Praeger, A. F. Holt, A. S. Vaughan, S. G. Swingler 2014 Conference
1.3.1 The effects of surface hydroxyl groups in polyethylene-silica nanocomposites M. Praeger 2015 Conference
1.3.1 Custom engineered nanoparticles for superior nanocomposite materials M. Praeger 2015 Report
1.3.1 Electrical properties of polymer nano-composites based on oxide and nitride fillers I. L. Hosier, M. Praeger, A. S. Vaughan, S. G. Swingler 2015 Conference
1.3.1 Effect of nano-particulate additives on phase dispersion I. Hosier 2015 Report
1.3.1 Report on the influence of additive characteristics on composite properties I.L. Hosier, M. Praeger, A.S. Vaughan, S.G. Swingler 2015 Report
1.3.1 Optimisation of passive components to minimise DC circuit breakers in multi-terminal HVDC F. Page, S. Finney, D. Holliday, L. Xu, B. Williams 2015 Conference
2.2.4 The effectiveness of using IEC61660 for characterising short-circuit currents of future low voltage dc distribution networks A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2013 Conference
2.2.4 Protecting the last mile – enabling an LVDC distribution network A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2013 Report
2.2.4 Protection Analysis for Plant Rating and Power Quality Issues in LVDC Distribution Power Systems A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2015 Conference
2.2.4 Experience from Research into Low Voltage DC Distribution System Protection: Recommendations for Protecting Hybrid HV DC-AC Grids A. Emhemed, G. Burt, C. Booth 2015 Conference
2.2.4 Experimental validation of an advanced DC protection scheme for enabling an LVDC last mile distribution network A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2015 Poster
2.2.4 Code of Practice for Low and Extra Low Voltage Direct Current Power Distribution in Buildings Contributions from A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2015 IET Standard
2.2.4 Low Voltage Direct Current: Powering energy demands in our digital world A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2015 Video
2.2.4 Multi-function DC protection scheme for an LVDC smart distribution network A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2014 Poster
1.2.1 New Breed of Network Fault-Tolerant Voltage-Source-Converter HVDC Transmission System G.P. Adam, K.H. Ahmed, S.J. Finney, K. Bell, B.W. Williams 2013 Journal
1.2.1 Network Operation Hierarchies in a Transcontinental Electricity System G.S. Hawker, K.A. Bell 2015 Conference
1.3.1 A dielectric spectroscopy study of the polystyrene/nanosilica model system M. Praeger, A.S. Vaughan, S.G. Swingler 2013 Conference
1.3.1 The breakdown strength and localised structure of polystyrene as a function of nanosilica fill-fraction M. Praeger, A.S. Vaughan, S.G. Swingler 2013 Conference
1.3.1 Electrical properties of polymer nano-composites based on oxide and nitrate fillers I. Hosier, A. Vaughan 2015 Conference
1.3.1 Phase dispersion of filler and its influence on dielectric properties M.Praeger, A. Vaughan, S. Swingler 2015 Report
2.2.4 An Advanced Protection Scheme for Enabling an LVDC Last Mile Distribution Network A. Emhemed, G. Burt 2014 Journal
1.3.2 Stable Phosphorus Passivated SiO2/4H-SiC Interface Using Thin Oxides Y.K. Sharma, A.C. Ahyi, T. Issacs-Smith, M.R. Jennings, S.M.Thomas, P. Mawby, S. Dhar, J.R. Williams 2013 Conference
1.3.3 DC power network post-fault recharging with an H-bridge cascaded multilevel converter Chao Chen, G.P. Adam, S.J. Finney, B.W. Williams 2013 Conference
1.3.3 Post — DC fault recharging of the H-bridge modular multilevel converter Chao Chen, G.P. Adam, S.J. Finney, B.W. Williams 2012 Conference
1.3.3 An Alternative Protection Strategy for Multi-Terminal HVDCA F. Page, S. Finney, L. Xu 2014 Conference
1.3.3 DC Fault Parameter Sensitivity Analysis F. Page; G. Adam S. Finney, L. Xu 2014 Conference
1.3.3 First Year Report F. Page 2012 Report
1.3.3 Review of published work and establishment of representative model and scenarios for DC fault studies Y. Feng, J. Clare, M. Johnson, R. Feldman 2014 Report
1.1.1 How to make an electricity system sustainable? R. Green, I. Staffell 2013 Presentation
1.3.2 4H-SiC Diode Avalanche Breakdown Voltage Estimation by Simulation and Junction Termination Extension Analysis H. Rong, Y. Sharma, F. Li, M. Jennings, P. Mawby 2013 Conference
1.3.2 Study of Breakdown Characteristics of 4H-SiC Schottky Diode with 2-step Junction Termination Extension Structure H. Rong, Y. K. Sharma, F. Li, S. Thomas, P. Mawby 2014 Conference
1.3.2 Impact of N2O passivation on 4H-SiC/SiO2 interfaces grown at high-temperature Y.K. Sharma, H. Rong, M. R. Jennings, P.A. Mawby 2014 Conference
1.3.2 Assessment of wide gap semiconductor impact Y. Sharma, H. Rong 2014 Report
1.3.2 Report on 10kV MOS-gated device Y. Sharma, H. Rong 2014 Report
1.3.1 CF3I Gas and Its Mixtures: Potential for Electrical Insulation M.S. Kamarudin, L. Chen, P. Widger, K.H. Elnaddab, M. Albano, H. Griffiths, A. Haddad 2014 Conference
1.3.1 BREAKDOWN CHARACTERISTICS OF CF3I/CO2 GAS MIXTURES UNDER FAST IMPULSE IN ROD-PLANE AND GIS GEOMETRIES L. Chen, P. Widger, C. Tateyama, A. Kumada, H. Griffiths, K. Hidaka, A. Haddad 2015 Conference
1.3.1 Potential of CF3I Gas Mixture as an Insulation Medium in Gas-Insulated Equipment L. Chen, P. Widger, M. S. Kamarudin, H. Griffiths, A. Haddad 2015 Conference
1.1.1 Considerations in design of an offshore network K.R.W. Bell, Lie Xu, T. Houghton 2014 Conference
1.1.1 Reliability Analysis of Design Options for Offshore HVDC Networks C. Maciver, K.R.W. Bell 2014 Conference
1.1.1 A comparison of AC and HVDC options for the connection of offshore wind generation in Britain D. Elliott, K.R.W. Bell, S.J. Finney, R. Adapa, C. Brozio, J. Yu, K. Hussain 2015 Journal
1.1.1 A reliability Evaluation of Offshore HVDC Grid Configuration Options C. MacIver, K. R. W. Bell, D.P. Nedic 2015 Journal
2.1.1 Models for Energy Characterisation of Current and Future Dwellings Nick Kelly, Jon Hand 2013 Report
1.1.1 How Does Wind Farm Performance Decline with Age?
Supplementary Material
I. Staffell, R. Green 2014 Conference
1.2.2 A DC Voltage Control Strategy for MMC MTDC Grids incorporating Multiple Master Stations C. E. Spallarossa, T. C. Green, Chang Lin, Xueguang Wu 2014 Conference
1.1.1 How much transmission capacity does Europe need? I. Staffell, R. Green 2013 Conference
1.1.1 How much transmission capacity will Europe need in 2050? R. Green, I. Staffell 2015 Conference
2.1.1 Performance assessment of tariff-based air source heat pump load shifting in a UK detached dwelling featuring phase change-enhanced buffering N. Kelly, P. Tuohy, A. Hawkes 2013 Journal
2.1.1 A Spatial–Temporal model for grid impact analysis of plug-in electric vehicles Y. Mu, Jianzhong Wu, N. Jenkins, H. Jia, C. Wang 2013 Journal
2.1.2 Impact of Wider Voltage Tolerances on Consumer Electronics and Wider Socialised Costs Thomas Frost, Paul Mitcheson 2014 Report
2.1.2 Comparison of cost and efficiency of DC versus AC in office buildings G. A. Laudani, P. Mitcheson 2014 Report
1.2.2 Active Power Modulation Assisting Controller Scheme Implemented on a VSC-HVDC Link Establishing Effective Damping of Low Frequency Power Oscillations M. Hadjikypris, V. Terzija 2014 Conference
2.2.1 Thermal path integrity monitoring for IGBT power electronics modules Mohd. Amir Eleffendi, C. Mark Johnson 2014 Conference
2.2.1 High-efficiency MOSFET-based MMC for LVDC Distribution Systems Y. Zhong, D. Holliday, S. Finney 2015 Conference
2.2.1 Comparing SiC MOSFET, IGBT and Si MOSFET in LV distribution inverters N.M. Roscoe, Y. Zhong, S.J. Finney 2015 Conference
2.2.1 High Efficiency DC-AC Converter for Low Voltage DC Distribution Networks Y. Zhong 2015 Poster
2.2.1 Solar thermal collector model for high-resolution stochastic bottom-up domestic energy demand models P. Henshall, E. McKenna, M. Thomson, P. Eames 2015 Poster
2.2.1 Series Impedance of distribution Cables with Sector-shaped Conductors A. J. Urquhart, M. Thomson 2015 Journal
2.2.1 Power Electronic voltage regulation for LV networks T. Frost, P. Mitcheson, T. C. Green 2015 Conference
2.1.1 Case-study of end-use energy demand in a commercial office building: implications for the development of high-resolution energy demand models E. McKenna, N. Doylend, M. Thomson 2013 Report
2.1.1 Demand response behaviour of domestic consumers with photovoltaic systems in the UK: an exploratory analysis of an internet discussion forum E. McKenna, M. Thomson 2014 Journal
2.1.1 Going with the wind: temporal characteristics of potential wind curtailment in Ireland in 2020 and opportunities for demand response E. McKenna, P. Grünewald, M. Thomson 2014 Journal
2.1.1 Four state domestic building occupancy model for energy demand simulations E. McKenna, M. Krawczynski, M. Thomson 2015 Journal
2.1.1 Keep it simple: time-of-use tariffs in high-wind scenarios P. Grünewald, E. McKenna, M. Thomson 2015 Journal
2.1.1 Impact of wind curtailment and storage on the Irish power system 2020 renewable electricity targets; a free open-source electricity system balancing and market (ESBM) model E. McKenna, M. Thomson 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Impacts of Demand Data Time Resolution on Estimates of Distribution System Energy Losses A. Urquhart, M. Thomson 2014 Journal
2.1.1 End-Use Demand in Commercial Office Buildings: Case Study and Modelling Recommendations E. McKenna, N. Doylend, M. Thomson 2014 Conference
2.1.1 High resolution modelling for performance assessment of future dwellings J. Hand, N. Kelly, A. Samuel 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Modelling the impact of integrated electric vehicle charging and domestic heating strategies on future energy demands J. Hand, N. Kelly, A. Samuel 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Energy Practices and Psychosocial Research: The Energy Biographies Study K. Henwood 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Electricity in the Home: Implications for Scale and Scope of Changes to the UK’s Electricity System S. Hubble 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Electricity in the Home: How, Why and When do People Use it? S. Hubble 2013 Conference
2.1.1 Electricity in the Home: How, Why and When do People Use it? S. Hubble 2013 Conference
2.1.1 Electricity in the Home: How, Why and When do People Use it? S. Hubble 2013 Conference
2.1.1 Asking about the future: Methodological insights from energy biographies F. Shirani, K. Parkhill, C. Butler, C. Groves, N. Pidgeon, K. Henwood 2015 Conference
2.2.1 An Investigation of High Efficiency DC-AC Converters for LVDC Distribution Networks Y. Zhong, S. Finney, D. Holliday 2014 Conference
2.2.1 Application of Kalman Filter to Estimate Junction Temperature in IGBT Power Modules A. M. Eleffendi and M. Johnson 2016 Journal
2.2.1 Evaluation of On-state Voltage VCE(ON) and Threshold Voltage Vth for Real-time Health Monitoring of IGBT Power Modules M. Johnson 2015 Conference
2.2.1 Assessment of realtime fusion prognosis techniques for power module health management A. M. Eleffendi 2012 Report
1.1.3 A Comparison of Design Options for Offshore HVDC Networks through a Sequential Monte-Carlo Reliability Analysis C. Maciver, K.R.W. Bell, D. P. Nedic 2014 Conference
1.1.3 A vector auto-regressive model for onshore and offshore wind synthesis incorporating meteorological model information D. Hill, K. R. W. Bell, D. McMillan, D. Infield 2014 Journal
1.1.1 A Green European Energy Market: The Role of Cross-border Trade R. Green, I. Staffell 2014 Conference
1.1.1 High quality wind data for energy systems models I. Staffell, R. Green 2014 Conference
1.1.1 Simplification of the European gas network O. Ogunbunmi, N. Jenkins 2012 Report
1.1.1 Vulnerability assessment of the European gas supply O. Ogunbunmi, N. Jenkins 2015 Journal
2.1.1 Simulation and analysis of gas networks with decentralized fuel injection M. Abeysekera, M. Rees, J. Wu 2014 Conference
2.1.1 Carbon constrained design of energy infrastructure for new build schemes M. Rees, J. Wu, N. Jenkins, M. Abeysekera 2014 Journal
2.1.1 Uncertainties in decarbonizing heat in the UK, Energy Policy M. Chaudry, M. Abeysekera, S. Hosseini, N. Jenkins, J. Wu 2015 Journal
2.1.1 Role of power-to-gas in an integrated gas and electricity system in Great Britain M. Qadrdan, M. Abeysekera, M. Chaudry, J. Wu, N. Jenkins 2015 Journal
1.3.1 Potential of CF3I gas for application in high voltage insulation and its prospects for replacing SF6 gas in GIL applications M. Haddad 2013 Report
2.2.2 Results of semi-structured Interviews with project engineers and housing professionals involved in housing development I. Shaw, R. Ozaki 2015 Report
2.2.2 Transforming energy provision in reducing carbon emissions I. Shaw, R. Ozaki 2014 Conference
2.2.2 Elecricity overloads and the 'last -mile' transformation I. Shaw, R. Ozaki 2014 Conference
2.2.2 Re-configuring energy systems and practices: users' perceptions of engineering solutions to electricity consumption and overload I. Shaw, R. Ozaki 2015 Conference